(Damville, 1876 – Cannes, 1918)
Raymond Duchamp-Villon was born in 1876 in an artistic family. He is the brother of Jacques Villon, Marcel Duchamp and Suzanne Duchamp. He started medicinal studies, often interrupted by rheumatism crises. His two painter brothers influenced him. He educated himself to sculpture, quickly showing remarkable gifts and is noticed by many artists. He exposed in Paris at Salon of Beaux – Arts National Society in 1902 and 1908. Since 1909, he exhibited at Autumn Salons and Independent Artists Salon.
Since 1910, he creates his own manners. He doesn’t express dynamism of body with traditional analyses of muscular effort, but with an alternation cadenced by forms: forms are developing in space with a movement in time.
Since 1911, he is part of Puteaux Group, also know as the Section d'Or Group with his two brothers Jacques Villon and Marcel Duchamp, but also with Fernand Léger, Albert Gleizes and Jean Metzinger. Inside Puteaux Group, he is influenced by cubists, and became the first cubist sculptor.
In 1912, he started a research – that soon monopolizes his work: provide static structure with a dynamical effect. In this time, he is interested by horse, not really as animal, but as symbolic unite of power. He dedicated major part of his time representing horse. He decomposed movements of gallop independently of the horses appearance. His horses is more a horsepower than a normal horse. He is pure movement, symbol of the substitution by twenty-first century man: machinery power to naturals forces, piston to muscles, and symbol of destructive power of modern war. The same year, he participated at the Salon de la section d'Or organised by Jacques Villon at the Gallery Boétie.
The war interrupted his working projects. Mobilized then exempted from service, he enrolled as auxiliary doctor. At the same time, he was able to pursue his artwork and created masters pieces. In a second time, he went to the front in Champagne, where he caught typhoid fever. In convalescence in Cannes, he died of blood poisoning.